Written in Tamil by Vidwan V. Lakshmanan
(Relating to Thirukkural Chapters 14, 15, 16 and 17. )
Sanatana dharma, in Hinduism, term used to denote the “eternal” or absolute set of duties or religiously ordained practices incumbent upon all Hindus, regardless of class, caste, or sect.
In Hindu conception of the world, there are only two religions. The religion of the good (daiva) and the religion of the evil (asura). Living selflessly in the service of others is godly. Living selfishly for oneself is evil.
Life never ceases to be without the above mentioned ways that man seems to follow. One is path of Dharma and the other the path of Adharma. Dharma is the do’s and Adharma is the dont’s. To lead a proper happy life scriptures or Shastra have stressed the do’s and dont’s to be strictly followed by man. The Sastras give you the choice. They are just statements to be followed by our own free will.
Elders, Mahans or great saints and Avatar Purushas often remind us that every one ought to adhere to codes and conducts mentioned in the Sastras. They are equivalent to Bible or Kuran. Hence Hinduism is better understood as Sanatana Dharma consisting of various codes and duties as formulated in the Shastras.
Here we must know what Sastra or Shastra mean in Sanātana Dharma
What are shAstra-s?
Shastras have been ordained as early as Vedic period. Shruti, (Sanskrit: “What Is Heard”) in Hinduism, the most-revered body of sacred literature, considered to be the product of divine revelation. Shruti works are considered to have been heard and transmitted by earthly sages, as contrasted to Smriti, or that which is remembered by ordinary human beings. Though Shruti is considered to be the more authoritative, in practice the Smriti texts are more influential in modern Hinduism. The revealed texts encompass the four Vedas—Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda—and the Brahmanas (ritual treatises), the Aranyakas (“Forest Books”), and the Upanishads (philosophical elaborations on the Vedas that form the basis of much of later Hindu philosophy and theology).
As per Kanchi Paramacharya, SAstra (also spelled as shAstra or śāstra) is an order or commandment. Wise say that a SAstra covers all aspects of life. Hindu Dharma is the most organized way of life where each and every aspect of life be it spirituality or day-2-day activities are coded and organized in a proper and systematic structure. They deal with various topics under the sun.
karma kANDa – vedic and Agamic – pUrva mimAmsA (rites and rituals, priestly duties, balancing forces of nature, staying in harmony with nature for good of all living beings mankind, animal, plant and mineral kingdom)
vedAnta and other spiritual texts for progressing spiritually and experiencing highest truth by various ways and methods. Realising essence of vedAnta means to achieve moksha, be liberated from cycle of birth and death.
dharma smriti-s for civil laws and rAja-dharma (dharma of king, art of administration, Judiciary system)
Grihya sUtra-s (Guidelines for day-2-day living)
dhanurvidyA (art of warfare)
gandharva veda (art of music and singing)
kauTilya artha shAstra (art of financial management)
chANakya niti, vidur niti, etc (art of politics)
ayurveda, charak samhitA, suShruta samhitA, etc (art of healing, medical practice, surgery, blood transmutation, etc)
nATya shAstra (art of drama, acting)
nritya kalA like bharatnATyam, kathaka, kathakali, kuchipuDi, etc (art of dancing, expressing devotion by dancing, used in paurANika dramas)
Art of codifying secret messages like mathematical formulas, secrets of subtle bodies) in riddles
Devotional hymns and independent compositions for devotional purpose and instilling devotion in hearts of all.
varNa vyavasthA (Division of work by dedicating particular work to particular community)
haTha yoga (haTha yoga pradipikA, Siva samhitA, gherANDa samhitA) and other forms of yoga and tantra like patanjali yoga sUtra-s, dattAtraya yoga sUtra-s, Goraksha banI, Thirumandiram, etc…
nyAya shAstra / tarka shAstra / vaiseshikhA (school of logic and reasoning)
vyakaraNa like pANiNi sUtra-s, aShTAdhyAyi and it’s commentary, maheshvara sUtra-s, etc (grammer)
and many more …
Covering all walks of life in a systematic way shows the intelligence, organization, management power and deep thinking ability of our ancestors. SAstra touches all walks of life.
The Dharmic Path teaches what is good and Adahrmic path the opposite that which is not good. Further to align with the two paths Scriptures or Sastras speak about four principles named Purusharthas.
Puruṣārtha (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ) literally means an “object of human pursuit”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, and refers to the four proper goals or aims of a human life. The four puruṣārthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values).
All four Purusarthas are important, but in cases of conflict, Dharma is considered more important than Artha or Kama in Hindu philosophy. Moksha is considered the ultimate ideal of human life that are necessary and sufficient for a fulfilling and happy life.
Dharma – signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with rta, the order that makes life and universe possible,and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and right way of living. Hindu dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, and those that are virtuous.
Dharma, is that which all existing beings must accept and respect to sustain harmony and order in the world.
Artha – signifies the “means of life”, activities and resources that enables one to be in a state one wants to be in. Artha incorporates wealth, career, activity to make a living, financial security and economic prosperity. The proper pursuit of artha is considered an important aim of human life in Hinduism.
Kama – signifies desire, wish, passion, emotions, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. explains kāma as “love” without violating dharma (moral responsibility), artha (material prosperity) and one’s journey towards moksha (spiritual liberation).
Moksha – signifies emancipation, liberation or release. In some schools of Hinduism, moksha connotes freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, in other schools moksha connotes freedom, self-knowledge, self-realization and liberation in this life.
Following the above concepts in Dharmic way naturally reaps positive benefits while Adharmic pursuits yields only negative results. To a Dharmic person even if destiny has a stronghold on him making him experience only the struggles, sooner or later will bring him to liberation in the end.
I repeat and recall in every chapter that in this book my aim is to bring to the readers the doctrines or maxims that the Kural teaches mankind. Just in a few words, kural spreads the rules or codes of good conduct to be followed by man in general, as a leader of a society, or as a ruler of a state or a country in large. Kural consists of social, economic and administrative doctrines like Arthasatra or Manusmriti that can be easily understood by even a layman.
Just a recap of the compilation of the Kural.
Book I – Aṟam (அறம்): Book of Virtue (Dharma), dealing with moral values of an individual and essentials of yoga philosophy (Chapters 1-38)
Book II – Porul (பொருள்): Book of Polity (Artha), dealing with socio-economic values, politics, society and administration, (Chapters 39-108)
Book III – Inbam (இன்பம்): Book of Love (Kama), dealing with psychological values and love (Chapters 109-133).
These doctrines are same as the Purusharthas mentioned above. Tiruvalluvar has broadly taken up the three whereas the fourth Purushartha is not given a separate division as Book IV. But he deals with that topic in Book 1 and has brought out its significance in different headings. To sum it up the maxims mentioned in the Kurals are also closely linked to remedial measures of which my articles focus in this book.
Propriety or Self Discipline, Tirukkural, Chapter 14,
We all know Self Discipline means conformity to established standards of good or proper behavior or manners; conformity to conventionally accepted standards of discipline or morals. The basic conducts to be followed in life by each one of us.
Good habits are to be considered as our breath. Is life possible with out breathing – inhaling and exhaling air. The vital role of our existence. In the same way our great Saint Tiruvalluvar in his Kural stresses the vital role of Good Behavior, Self Discipline or habits.
A kural points out that the right adherence of virtues will sure stand as guard and strongly protect us even at times of struggles faced by our destiny.
Another Kural points that the foundation for all good things to happen in life solely lies on the integrity and self discipline we hold. This can also be described as Character. We have often heard ” Wealth is lost, nothing is lost; health is lost something is lost; but if character is lost everything is lost” A golden proverb indeed. How to behave in every walk of life is very important.
Aristotle claims that character develops over time as one acquires habits from parents and community, first through reward and punishment. One acquires a good character much as one may learn to play a musical instrument: initially, one may be under some pressure to practice, but eventually, one enjoys playing with skill and understanding. Aristotle claims that one is partly responsible for one’s character, but he thereby raises the question whether one freely chooses one’s character. A person of good character does choose freely, however, and is able to frame complex situations accurately. We may have achieved a lot of scholarly degrees academically and earned name and fame in our career; may be even considered an intellectual genius and would have received very many awards and rewards. But what does all that matter if we do not go with the ways of the world. Won’t we be branded as an unworthy useless person.
What does it mean to mend your ways with the world ?
What are our rights as a citizen?
We can state these golden rules as follows.
- Volunteer to be active in your community.
- Be honest and trustworthy. Follow rules and laws.
- Respect the rights of others.Be informed about the world around you.
- Respect the property of others.Be compassionate.
- Take responsibility for your actions.
- Be a good neighbor. Protect the environment .
- We are not different from the world. Each one of us are a part of the country or world we live in.
- Each one of us are bound by duties and responsibilities to stay united and protect our country and thereby the whole world to live in harmony.
- Our self interests must join hands with the larger interests of the outer world.
- Personal likes and dislikes must not be made public.
- Accept and go with the majority .
All the above mentioned facts must be adhered whole heartedly.
Each of the above statement has been analysed by Tiruvalluvar in different chapters.
Our personal interests must not be allowed to gatecrash the general welfare of the world. Even if people go astray to unrighteousness sooner or later righteousness will be victorious over the other. If one subjects oneself to bad ways he will be the sufferer and will have to pay a huge penalty. He will have to atone for his sins at some point of time.
The Kurals put forward that with Purity in thought, word and action one can win over enemies; sinners and rogues reformed.
Desires aligned with dharma, not bringing harm to others and not crossing the limits are like medicines that treat one’s ailments.
Man is said to be desirous to claim three things in his life time. It has been the root cause for his downfall from age old days be he a king or a subject. What are they?
Desire for land, desire for wealth and desire for women. Chapters 15 and 18.
A Kural speaks ill of a person who desirous to possess another man’s wife – which will fetch him disgrace; bring enmity and be drowned in fear. A Kural labels it as the worst of all sins.
Another Kural further points out that desiring the property of others are next of the worst sins.
The main reasons for the increase of murder, fights and violence are all due to this avariciousness to own what does not legally belong to them. Next in line is to amass and hoard great wealth without the intention of spending it for the welfare of mankind or society.
Over greediness, jealousy and discontent are the evil tendencies that provoke man to involve himself in any extreme activity of breaking the rules and cause havoc and destruction to society.
Bhagavan Krishna says “While contemplating on the objects of the senses, one develops attachment to them. Attachment leads to desire, and from desire arises anger. Anger, greed, lust, etc. are considered in the Vedic scriptures as diseases of the mind. Anger leads to clouding of judgment, which results in bewilderment of the memory. When the memory is bewildered, the intellect gets destroyed; and when the intellect is destroyed, one is ruined. “ – Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2 verses 62 and 63.
If only these harmful tendencies mentioned above – lust, greed, miserliness, are minimised to nil will there be some possibilities for mankind to live in calm and peace.
Unwanted and improper Desires makes one easily succumb to evil actions.
Tirukkural Chapters 16 and 17 Practice Patience Avoid Greed and Jealousy.
One other quality important for peaceful life is not be jealous of others much better than in status and position, and of people blessed with wealth and prosperity.
Patience is another essential quality to be practiced. Patience is the capacity to accept or tolerate delay, problems, or suffering without becoming annoyed or anxious. It is best described as the ability to remain calm and not become annoyed when dealing with problems or even while hearing harsh and hurtful words spoken. It can also be described as an ability to wait on something for long without loosing your cool and becoming upset. Patience is the key to victory in life. This attitude will give us the strength to withstand even the intolerable cruelties thrown our way by Destiny.
We are happy to hear praise worthy words from others. But if the same person who praised us in course of time, may turn against us by speaking ill of us. Let him do so to his heart’s content. We should refrain from retaliating or showing revenge as tit for tat. Seeing us calm and not being agitated he will stop bothering us.
Thirukkural suggests patience is necessary for an ethical life and one’s long term of happiness, even if patience is sometimes difficult to practice in the short term.
More excerpts from the Kurals are : ” Our conduct must always foster forbearance; one must patiently endure rude remarks, because it delivers us to purity;
in case we are unjustly wronged by others, it is best to conquer our hurt emotions with patience, accept suffering and refrain from unrighteous retaliation;
it is good to patiently endure injuries done to you, but to forget them is even better; just as the earth bears those who dig her to depths, one must bear with patience those who despise us.
Impatience builds up unnecessary enmity and as a result consequences will be violent and undermine peace in family or society.
“Forgiving and forgetting will make one honoured and remembered with fame even after death. Swami Chinmayananda ” Many difficulties could be smoothed over by patience. We need it, not only with others – but also with ourselves.
Valluvar goes on to say that it’s only natural that the sages endure hunger but he praises more the ones who endure harsh words and remains calm and unperturbed. Patience and forbearance are the jewels of our good character and propriety.
All these attitude will reduce quarrels, fights within our family and society and even more so of preventing destructive wars on a wider scale of national and international level. Fast rising cruelty and violence creating havoc to nature, environment and humanity will be curbed.
Learn to live well and harmoniously with nature and environment. Follow the simple golden rules mentioned earlier, rules of selfless belonging to this world. Keep in mind and put to practice the ten golden points mentioned in the beginning of the chapter. From ancient days our Ithihasas, Puranas have taught us the two fold paths of our lives and by giving numerous stories, true stories of morals from the past so as to distinguish between Dharma that which deals with good and Adharma that which deals with evil or ugly. They are undoubtedly based on what was heard and written in our scriptures called Vedas and Upanishads. The fifth Veda is Bhagavad Gita and so also the Thirukkural which had originated in this Kali Yuga in a more simple manner.
Let us make note of the Kurals with meaning and transliteration.
Chapter 14. Propriety
ஒழுக்கம் விழுப்பந் தரலான் ஒழுக்கம்
உயிரினும் ஓம்பப் படும்.
ozhukkam vizhuppanh tharalaan ozhukkam
uyirinum Ompap padum 131
Propriety confers prominence; hence, propriety is
cherished more than existence.
பரிந்தோம்பிக் காக்க ஒழுக்கம் தெரிந்தோம்பித்
தேரினும் அஃதே துணை.
parindhompik kaakka ozhukkam therindhoampith
therinum aqdhae thuNai 132
Take painstaking effort to preserve propriety; after researching all there is to,
one can conclude, it is the best ally.
ஒழுக்கம் உடைமை குடிமை இழுக்கம்
இழிந்த பிறப்பாய் விடும்.
ozhukkam udaimai kutimai izhukkam
izhindha piRappaai vidum 133
Class is determined by propriety of conduct; impropriety will lead to
being considered part of an ignoble class.
மறப்பினும் ஓத்துக் கொளலாகும் பார்ப்பான்
பிறப்பொழுக்கங் குன்றக் கெடும்.
maRappinum oththuk koLalaakum paarppaan
piRappozhukkang kundrak kedum. 134
One can relearn if he forgets the scriptures; but, a brahmin ceases to be one,
when he strays from his decorum.
அழுக்கா றுடையான்கண் ஆக்கம்போன்று இல்லை
ஒழுக்க மிலான்கண் உயர்வு.
azhukkaa RutaiyaankaN aakkampoan Rillai
ozhukka milaan-kaN uyarvu. 135
A person who has envy has no wealth; a person
who has no decorum has no growth.
ஒழுக்கத்தின் ஒல்கார் உரவோர் இழுக்கத்தின்
ஏதம் படுபாக் கறிந்து.
ozhukkaththin olkaar uravoar izhukkaththin
Edham padupaak kaRindhu. 136
The strong-willed don’t shrivel their propriety,
knowing the suffering inflicted by impropriety.
ஒழுக்கத்தின் எய்துவர் மேன்மை இழுக்கத்தின்
எய்துவர் எய்தாப் பழி.
ozhukkaththin eydhuvar Maenmai izhukkaththin
eydhuvar eydhaap pazhi. 137
One attains eminence through decorum;
one attains unprecedented infamy due to indecorum.
நன்றிக்கு வித்தாகும் நல்லொழுக்கம் தீயொழுக்கம்
என்றும் இடும்பை தரும்.
nandrikku viththaakum nallozhukkam theeyozhukkam
endrum idumpai tharum 138
Good conduct becomes the seed for goodwill and
impropriety always yields agony.
ஒழுக்க முடையவர்க்கு ஒல்லாவே தீய
வழுக்கியும் வாயாற் சொலல்.
ozhukka mutaiyavarkku ollaavae theeya
vazhukkiyum vaayaaR solal 139
Those who practice propriety find it impossible
to utter harmful words even forgetfully.
உலகத்தோடு ஒட்ட ஒழுகல் பலகற்றும்
கல்லார் அறிவிலா தார்.
ulakaththoadu otta ozhukal palakatrum
kallaar aRivilaa thaar 140
Chapter 15. Desiring another man’s wife. (Just a few mentioned here)
அறன்கடை நின்றாருள் எல்லாம் பிறன்கடை
நின்றாரின் பேதையார் இல்.
Arankatai Nindraarul Ellaam Pirankatai
Nindraarin Pedhaiyaar Il. 142
Of all those who have been beyond the boundaries of morality, there are no greater
imbeciles than those who go after another’s wife.
பகைபாவம் அச்சம் பழியென நான்கும்
இகவாவாம் இல்லிறப்பான் கண்.
Pakaipaavam Achcham Pazhiyena Naankum
Ikavaavaam Illirappaan Kan. 146.
Animosity, sin, fear and vengeance – these four will never leave one
with a liaison with another’s wife.
அறனியலான் இல்வாழ்வான் என்பான் பிறனியலாள்
பெண்மை நயவா தவன்.
Araniyalaan Ilvaazhvaan Enpaan Piraniyalaal
Penmai Nayavaa Thavan. 147.
One, who leads a righteous family life, will not
crave the feminine grace of another’s wife.
அறன்வரையான் அல்ல செயினும் பிறன்வரையாள்
பெண்மை நயவாமை நன்று.
Aranvaraiyaan Alla Seyinum Piranvaraiyaal
Penmai Nayavaamai Nandru.150
Even when one is unjust and does many a misdeed he should at least not fall for feminine charm of another’s wife.
Chapter 16 Forbearance
அகழ்வாரைத் தாங்கும் நிலம்போலத் தம்மை
இகழ்வார்ப் பொறுத்தல் தலை.
Akazhvaaraith Thaangum Nilampolath Thammai
Ikazhvaarp Poruththal Thalai. 151
To bear with those who revile us, just as the earth bears up those who dig it, is the first of virtues.
பொறுத்தல் இறப்பினை என்றும்
போற்றி யொழுகப் படும்.
Niraiyutaimai Neengaamai Ventin Poraiyutaimai
Potri Yozhukap Patum. 152
Bear with reproach even when you can retaliate; but to forget it will be still better than that
இன்நம்யுள் இன்மை விருந்தொரால் வன்மையுள்
வன்மை மடவார்ப் பொறை.
Inmaiyul Inmai Virundhoraal Vanmaiyul
Vanmai Matavaarp Porai. 153
The sorest poverty is bidding guest unfed depart; The mightiest might to bear with men of foolish heart.
நிறையுடைமை நீங்காமை வேண்டின் பொற்யுடைமை
போற்றி யொழுகப் படும்
Niraiyutaimai Neengaamai Ventin Poraiyutaimai
Potri Yozhukap Patum. 154
If you desire that greatness should never leave, you preserve in your conduct the exercise of patience.
ஒறுத்தாரை ஒன்றாக வையாரே வைப்பர்
பொறுத்தாரைப் பொன்போற் பொதிந்து.
Oruththaarai Ondraaka Vaiyaare Vaippar
Poruththaaraip Ponpor Podhindhu. 155
Who wreak their wrath as worthless are despised;
Who patiently forbear as gold are prized.
ஒறுத்தார்க்கு ஒருநாளை இன்பம் பொறுத்தார்க்குப்
பொன்றுந் துணையும் புகழ்.
Oruththaarkku Orunaalai Inpam Poruththaarkkup
Pondrun Thunaiyum Pukazh. 156
The pleasure of the resentful continues for a day. The praise of the patient will continue until (the final destruction of) the world.
திறனல்ல தற்பிறர் செய்யினும் நோநொந்து
அறனல்ல செய்யாமை நன்று.
Thiranalla Tharpirar Seyyinum Nonondhu
Aranalla Seyyaamai Nandru. 157
Though others inflict injuries on you, yet compassionating the evil (that will come upon them) it will be well not to do them anything contrary to virtue.
மிகுதியான் மிக்கவை செய்தாரைத் தாந்தம்
தகுதியான் வென்று விடல்.
Mikudhiyaan Mikkavai Seydhaaraith Thaandham
Thakudhiyaan Vendru Vital. 158
Let a man by patience overcome those who through pride commit excesses.
துறந்தாரின் தூய்மை உடையர் இறந்தார்வாய்
இன்னாச்சொல் நோற்கிற் பவர்.
Thurandhaarin Thooimai Utaiyar Irandhaarvaai
Innaachchol Norkir Pavar. 159
Those who bear with the uncourteous speech of the insolent are as pure as the ascetics.
உண்ணாது நோற்பார் பெரியர் பிறர்சொல்லும்
இன்னாச்சொல் நோற்பாரின் பின்.
Unnaadhu Norpaar Periyar Pirarsollum
Innaachchol Norpaarin Pin. 160
Those who endure abstinence from food are great, next to those who endure the uncourteous speech of others.
Chapter 17. Free of Envy
ஒழுக்காறாக் கொள்க ஒருவன்தன் நெஞ்சத்து
அழுக்காறு இலாத இயல்பு.
ozhukkaaRaak koLka oruvan-than nenjaththu
azhukkaaRu ilaadha iyalpu 161
Let a man esteem that disposition which is free from envy in the same manner as propriety of conduct.
விழுப்பேற்றின் அஃதொப்பது இல்லையார் மாட்டும்
அழுக்காற்றின் அன்மை பெறின்.
vizhuppaetrin aqdhoppadhu illaiyaar maattum
azhukkaatrin anmai peRin 162
Amongst all attainable excellences there is none equal to that of being free from envy towords others
அறன்ஆக்கம் வேண்டாதான் என்பான் பிறனாக்கம்
பேணாது அழுக்கறுப் பான்.
aRanaakkam vaeNtaadhaan enpaan piRanaakkam
paeNaadhu azhukkaRup paan 163
Of him who instead of rejoicing in the wealth of others, envies it, it will be said “he neither desires virtue not wealth”.
அழுக்காற்றின் அல்லவை செய்யார் இழுக்காற்றின்
ஏதம் படுபாக்கு அறிந்து.
azhukkaatrin allavai seyyaar izhukkaatrin
Edham padupaakku aRindhu 164
(The wise) knowing the misery that comes from transgression will not through envy commit unrighteous deeds.
அழுக்காறு உடையார்க்கு அதுசாலும் ஒன்னார்
வழுக்காயும் கேடீன் பது.
azhukkaaRu udaiyaarkku adhusaalum onnaar
vazhukkaayum kaeteen padhu 165
To those who cherish envy that is enough. Though free from enemies that (envy) will bring destruction.
கொடுப்பது அழுக்கறுப்பான் சுற்றம் உடுப்பதூஉம்
உண்பதூஉம் இன்றிக் கெடும்.
koduppadhu azhukkaRuppaan sutram utuppadhooum
uNpadhooum indrik kedum 166
He who is envious at a gift (made to another) will with his relations utterly perish destitute of food and rain.
அவ்வித்து அழுக்காறு உடையானைச் செய்யவள்
தவ்வையைக் காட்டி விடும்.
avviththu azhukkaaRu udaiyaanaich cheyyavaL
thavvaiyaik kaatti vidum 167
Lakshmi envying (the prosperity) of the envious man will depart and introduce him to her sister.
அழுக்காறு எனஒரு பாவி திருச்செற்றுத்
தீயுழி உய்த்து விடும்.
azhukkaaRu enaoru paavi thiruchchetruth
theeyuzhi uyththu vidum 168
Envy will destroy (a man’s) wealth (in his world) and drive him into the pit of fire (in the world to come).
அவ்விய நெஞ்சத்தான் ஆக்கமும் செவ்வியான்
கேடும் நினைக்கப் படும்.
avviya nenjaththaan aakkamum sevviyaan
kaedum ninaikkap padum 169
The wealth of a man of envious mind and the poverty of the righteous will be pondered.
அழுக்கற்று அகன்றாரும் இல்லை அஃதுஇல்லார்
பெருக்கத்தில் தீர்ந்தாரும் இல்.
azhukkatru akandraarum illai aqdhuillaar
perukkaththil theerndhaarum il 170
Never have the envious become great; never have those who are free from envy been without greatness.
Let us keep contemplating on the above four chapters of the Kural dealing with Self Discipline, Not desiring other men’s wives, Forbearance and Free from envy until we go on to the next chapters of Good Conducts. We have just started sailing across the ocean of Scriptures and Sastras codified in simple two lined verses given the name Thirukkural by its author the great Saint Thiruvalluvar. The topics are more to be covered. Destination is far away to be reached….. Let us enjoy and revel in the smooth sailing…